Many individuals refer to battery chargers as being an intelligent battery charger or a smart battery charger. It makes little difference what terminology is used to describe a battery recharger – a device which is used to replenish the energy into a secondary cell by coercing electrical currents through it.
The charging process always depends on the type and size of the battery being charged – dynamics such as how much voltage is required and for how long the battery needs to be recharged for, and once the process is completed, what needs to be done have to be considered – all aspects that are taken into the equation when charging all types of batteries.
Certain batteries have a high tolerance against overcharging and can be recharged by connecting a continuous voltage source or a constant current source, depending on the type of battery; these chargers are simple and need to be disconnected at the end of each charge cycle.
Other batteries require cut-off timers so that the current is curtailed at certain fixed times – this is usually when the battery is fully charged.
There are certain batteries that can be damaged when overcharged – the end result would be reduced battery capacity and a reduction of the life of the battery – in some instances batteries could explode or over-heat!
In some instances, intelligent battery chargers could have voltage and temperature-sensing circuits as well as microprocessor controllers for safe adjustment of the charge current and voltage – these regulate the state of the charge and the cut-off time of charging the battery.